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Traits are characteristics which may be passed from one offspring to some other. A gene is a portion of DNA which includes the hereditary code for a trait.
Genes are located in chromosomes, that are located in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells.

For every characteristic you get 1 / 2 of the genetic code from the female, and half from the male parent.
As a result of this you get different types of the same characteristic. These different kinds are called alleles.

Gregor Mendel, known as the "father of genetics," grew up in Austria in 1822. A monk, Mendel learned the basic key points of heredity through tests in his monastery's garden. His tests proved that the inheritance of certain features in pea crops follows particular habits, subsequently becoming the building blocks of modern genetics, and resulting in the understanding of heredity.For every characteristic he studied there were different forms of the characteristic. 
  • For example, the color of the bloom could be white or crimson.
  • The pea plant can be tall or short.
  • For every characteristic it had at least two different types of the same characteristic.
  • These different kinds of a trait are called alleles.
  • Different types of the same trait.
  • Let’s have a look at eye color.
  • The trait is eye color, and the alleles will be the several colors.

Another example, the shape of the chin is the feature, and the allele would be whether it's a cleft chin or a round smooth chin.

What are some dominant alleles in humans?

Having a widows peak hairline, a bent little finger, crossing your left thumb over your right thumb are all examples of dominant alleles found in humans.

Here is an excellent list of many more dominant traits.

Human Traits

What is a heterozygous?

Heterozygous is when a genotype in that includes one dominant and one recessive allele. For example Bb would be heterozygous.

What is codominant?

Codominant is when you have two dominant alleles that both show up in the offspring. This cow is an example. Notice the cow is both black and white, not a mixture.

Alleles-Genetics Basics



codonant example
What is incomplete dominance?

Incomplete dominance is when alleles blind together. For example, you can cross a red flower with a white flower and get a pink flower.